Dr Paul Constable demonstrating the device on a child, Declan
A ground-breaking method to detect autism in children through a simple eye scan, could potentially identify the condition years earlier than is currently possible, enabling earlier intervention than currently possible.
The culmination of thirteen years of research, the method may have implications for early detection of other disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinsons and Alzheimer’s Disease.
The potential biomarker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was unveiled as one of several key projects of the Caring Futures Institute, which is housed within the Flinders University’s College of Nursing and Health Sciences, and was launched in Adelaide on 13 August 2019.
Flinders University’s Dr Paul Constable has been searching for an autism eye-biomarker since 2006, a journey shaped by his son’s experiences surrounding an autism diagnosis at the age of three.
He presented his team’s preliminary findings at the International Society for Autism Research conference in Canada recently, from a trial comprising children aged between five and 21 years from centres based in the UK, USA and at Flinders University to examine 89 individuals with ASD and 87 without ASD.
“The retina is an extension of the brain, made of neural tissue and connected to the brain by the optic nerve, so it was an ideal place to look,” Dr Constable says.
“We found a pattern of subtle electrical signals in the retina that are different in children on the autism spectrum, which relates to differences in their brain development.”
His research, in collaboration with Yale University in the US, and University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital in the UK, will now establish the test’s effectiveness on younger children.
“It’s a quick, non-intrusive eye-scan using a hand-held device and we anticipate it will be equally effective on younger children. Now we have found a likely candidate biomarker for autism, the next stage is to look at young children, even infants, as the earlier we can get to intervention the better.” Dr Constable says.
He says his team often encounters parents who have two or three young children with autism, as the chance of having a second autistic child is much higher for parents with one child on the spectrum. Autism in Australia is usually diagnosed after the age of four.
“Very early diagnosis means not only can children receive important interventions, but families are empowered to get the necessary supports in place, come to terms with the diagnosis, and make informed decisions.”
Dr Constable’s team is also investigating the scan to detect other conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, with promising results.
The Caring Futures Institute
Professor Alison Kitson, Vice-President of Flinders University’s College of Nursing and Health Sciences and inaugural leader of the Caring Futures Institute, said this is one example of many society-changing projects to be advanced through the Caring Futures Institute.
“A future with answers to our greatest health challenges, where the highest standard of care is available to all who need it, is not out of reach,” she says.
The Caring Futures Institute is based on four themes:
- Better systems – in health, ageing, social care systems and services
- Better lives – focused on self-care, health and wellbeing
- Better care – including caring, supportive, restorative and palliative interventions
- Better communities – generating social inclusion through co-design and collaboration
The Caring Futures Institute is the first research hub in Australia to be fully dedicated to the study of self-care and caring solutions to transform how we care for ourselves and others.
“Caring is fundamental to any society but we need to do better, particularly in the context of our ageing populations, chronic illness, rising health care costs and the opportunities presented from advancing technology,” says Professor Kitson.
“The Caring Futures Institute is focused on better care across the lifespan – developing solutions with partners and end-users to deliver societal and economic benefits”.
Its other initial projects include developing evidence-backed digital apps to facilitate nutritional home cooking, digital innovations to empower heart patients of all cultures and languages in self-care, and enhancing online support for dementia carers.
Its initial partners include the South Australian government, the Heart Foundation, Cancer Council, CSIRO, Flinders Foundation, aged care providers, multicultural community organisations and many more.